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Power-sharing I CBSE Class 10 I Chapter 1


Power Sharing

Power sharing means the distribution of power between the organs of the government such as the legislature, executive, and judiciary. 
Power sharing allows different organs of government placed at the same level to exercise different powers.

Purpose of power sharing:

  •  To avoid of conflict between social groups.
  •  To ensure the stability of political order.
  •  To upholds the spirit of democracy.

Horizontal form of power sharing: 

Power is shared between different organs of government, such as the legislature, executive and judiciary. This type of power distribution is called the horizontal distribution of power sharing. This allows different organs of government which are at the same level to exercise different powers. Due to horizontal power sharing, none of any branch of Government become too powerful thus one organ of the government keeps a check on the other. 

For example, in India, Any appointed, the chief judges of India cannot be removed from their office until and unless a motion to this effect is passed by two-third members of both the Parliamentary houses in India.

Vertical form of Power sharing:

Power sharing among various levels of governments. In many countries like India and USA have federal government system. The power is shared between the state government and central government. The central government looks after the implementation of constitutional rule and various developmental programs across the nation as a whole, while the state governments have responsibility of developing their own states. Therefore powers of central and state governments are well defined in constitution to rule uniformly in country.

Power sharing among different social groups: 

In many countries, power is shared among different social or religious groups for proper development of citizens. For example, in India, reservations are given for the socially weaker sections of society in legislatures and bureaucracy. 

Power sharing among various pressure groups and political parties: 

In democratic countries, one political party remains in power for a some period or in a coalition government, different political parties share power and ensure the interests of every section of the society.
Various pressure groups such as trade unions and farmers may also share power by influencing decisions made by the government through movements or protests. That is why farmers are consulted before making new land or crop policy.

Story of Belgium

• Belgium is a small country in Europe which has a population little more than one crore and share borders with Netherlands, France and Germany.
• The ethnic composition of Belgium is very complex. 
• 59 percent population live-in the Flemish region and they speaks Dutch language. 
• 40 percent population live in the Wallonia region and they speak French. 
• Remaining 1 percent of population speak German. 
• In Belgium’s capital, Brussels, 80 Percent people speak French while 20 percent are Dutch spoken. 
• The minority group was French-speaking community and relatively rich and powerful .They were benefited of economic development and education. 
• This made Dutch-speaking community were angry as they were privileged to benefit of economic development and education much later. 
• The tension between two communities was acute in Brussels.
• During the 1950s and 1960s, tensions between these Dutch-speaking community and French-speaking community created due to these differences. 

Accommodation in Belgium:

• Belgium was recognized the existence of regional differences and cultural diversities. 
• Between 1970 and 1993, they amended their constitution four times to made arrangement that would enable citizen of Belgium to live together within the same country with social harmony. 

Some of the elements of the Belgian model:
a. Provision made in constitution that the number of Dutch and French-speaking ministers shall be equal in the central government.
b. Many powers of the central government had been shifted to states government of the two of the regions of the country.
c. Separated government made in Brussels in which both the communities have equal representation.

Why is power sharing desirable? 

• Two important of reasons can be given in favor of power sharing. 
• Firstly, power sharing is good exercise because it helps to reduce the possibility of conflict between social groups. 
• There is a second reason of power sharing is maintain the spirit of democracy in the country. A democratic rule involves sharing power with affected citizens by its exercise. 
• First set of reasons called PRUDENTIAL and the second set of reasons called MORAL. 
• While prudential reasons emphasized that power sharing will bring out better outcomes, moral reasons of power sharing make power sharing as valuable.

Story of Sri Lanka 

The major social groups in Sri Lanka are the Sinhala-speaking population (74 per cent) and the Tamil-speaking population (18 per cent). Among Tamil population, there are two subgroups. Tamil natives of the country are called ‘Sri Lankan Tamils’. The remaining whose ancestors came from India as plantation workers during British colonial period, are called ‘Indian Tamils’. 
Majority of the Sinhala-speaking people are Buddhist and most of the Tamils are Hindus or Muslims. There are about 7 per cent population are Christians, who are both Tamil and Sinhala.


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