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CLASS 7-Weather, Climate and Adaptations of Animals to Climate

Weather, Climate and Adaptations of Animals to Climate


·         The day to-day condition of the atmosphere of any a place with respect to the temperature, rainfall, wind speed, humidity,  etc., is known as the weather at that place.

·         The weather is  not the same on any two days and week after week.

·         The temperature, humidity, rainfall, and other factors are called the elements of the weather.

·         The weather of a place changes day after day and week after week.

·         The weather is a complex phenomenon because  it can vary over very short periods of time.

·         It has been observed  sometimes that it is sunny in the morning, but suddenly clouds appear from nowhere and it starts raining heavily.

·         Weather is a very complex phenomenon, it is not easy to predict.


·         All changes in the weather are caused by the sun.


·         The average weather pattern measured over a long time, say 25 years, is called the climate of the place.

·         Example: - Kerala is very hot and wet as compare to Jammu & Kashmir, which has a moderately hot and wet climate for a part of the year.

·         The tropical and the Polar Regions are the two  different regions of the earth, that  have severe climatic conditions.

Climate and Adaptation

·         All living beings adapt to their surrounding by some or the other way.

·         Animals generally adapted to the conditions in which they live.

Polar Region:-

·         The Polar Regions are extremely cold throughout the year.

·         This regions are covered with snow and it is very cold for most part of the year.

·        The sun does not set at the poles  for six months while for the other six months the sun does not rise.

·         In winters, the temperature can reduce as low as –37°C.

·         Animals living in this region have adapted to these severe conditions.

·         Polar bears have white fur which make them invisible in the snowy white background.    which protects them their predators. 

· T This feature of polar bear  also helps them in catching their prey. 

·      They have two thick layers of fur & a layer of fat under their skin. Which keep them warm.

·            Polar bears are well-insulated  due to thick layers of fur & a layer of fat under their skin . That is why that they  move slowly and rest often to avoid getting overheated.

·         The polar bear  is a good swimmer. Its paws are  large & wide, that help it not only to swim well but also walk with ease in the snow.

·         While swimming under water, it  can remain under water for long durations closing its nostrils .

·         It can sense well because it has strong sense of smell .Which help it to catch its prey for food.

·         Penguins is a good swimmers too. His bodies are streamlined and their feet have webs, making them good swimmers.

·         Various  other animals living in the Polar Regions are many types of fishes, musk oxen, reindeers, foxes, seals, whales, and birds. 

·         It is to be observed that while fish can remain under cold water for long but birds must remain warm to survive.

·          That is why, birds migrate to warmer regions when winter sets in.

·         They return back after the winter is over.

·         India is one of the best destinations of many of these kind of birds.

·         Siberian crane, Which comes from Siberia to places like Bharatpur in Rajasthan and Sultanpur in Haryana, and some wetlands of North East in India.

The Tropical Rainforest

·         The tropical region has  a hot climate because of its location around the equator.

·         Even in the coldest month the temperature is  higher than about 15°C.

·     The temperature may cross 40°C  during hot summers.

·          Throughout the year, days and nights are almost equal in length. 

 p   Plenty of rainfall observed in this region.

·         These forest are found in Western Ghats and Assam in India, Southeast Asia, Central America and Central Africa.

th   This region supports wide variety of plants and animals due to continuous     warmth and rain, .

·    The major kinds  of animals living in the rainforests are  apes, gorillas, tigers, elephants, leopards, lizards, snakes, monkeys, birds and insects.

·         These climatic conditions of rainforests are highly suitable for supporting an enormous number and a variety of animals.

·         There is intense competition for food and shelter between the animal due to high   population. Many  of these animals are adapted to living on the trees.

·          Example:  Red-eyed frog ,which has developed sticky pads on its feet to help it climb on trees  for living.

·     Monkeys have long tails for grasping branches so that they can live on tree.

·         Their hands as well as  feet are such that they can easily hold on to the branches.

·       There is competition for food, some animals are adapted to get food not easily reachable.

·         A striking example is that of the bird Toucan, which possesses a long, large beak.

·         This helps a toucan to reach the fruits on branches which are otherwise too weak to support its weight.

·         Many tropical animals have  sharp eyesight, sensitive hearing, thick skin and a skin colour that helps them to camouflage by blending with the surroundings.  This is also to protect them from predators.

 e Example, big cats ( tigers  and lions) have thick skins and sensitive hearing.

·         The Beard ape  (also called lion-tailed macaque ) lives in the rainforests of Western Ghats.

·    Outstanding feature in the silver-white mane, which surrounds the head from the cheeks down to its chin. which is a good climber and spends a major part of its life on the tree. It eats mainly on fruits, seeds, young leaves, stems, flowers and buds.

·       Beard ape also searches for insects under the bark of the trees.Since  they  get sufficient food on the trees so rarely comes down on the ground.

·         A well-known animal of Indian tropical rainforest is the elephant.  It's trunk, is used as a nose due to  which it has a strong sense of smell. It is also used by it for picking up food. Moreover, its tusks are modified teeth. These can tear the bark of trees that elephant loves to eat.

·         The elephant is able to handle the competition for food rather well.

·         Large ears of the elephant help them to hear even very soft sounds.

·      It also help the elephant to keep cool in the hot and humid climate of the rainforest.


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